Passwords and Quantum Computers
For several years researchers warned public that about 600 qubit quantum computers with modern algorithms can break encryption. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shor%27s_algorithm
In these years some researchers claimed that they can break encryption with 372 qubit quantum computers. See https://interestingengineering.com/innovation/china-quantum-code-breaking-algorithm-catastrophic
A 160 bit elliptic curve cryptographic key could be broken on a quantum computer using around 1000 qubits while factoring the security-wise equivalent 1024 bit RSA modulus would require about 2000 qubits. https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0301141v2.pdf
According to Microsoft experts, 2330 qubits and 1.26*10 11 (~2 36 ) operations are required for the restoration ofan ECDSA 256-bits private key https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/598.pdf
IBM currently has 433 qubit quantum computer. See https://www.reuters.com/technology/ibm-launches-its-most-powerful-quantum-computer-with-433-qubits-2022-11-09/
In 2023 IBM will have 1000 qubit quantum computer. See https://www.science.org/content/article/ibm-promises-1000-qubit-quantum-computer-milestone-2023
In 2025 IBM will have 4000 qubit quantum computer. See https://www.zdnet.com/article/ibm-promises-a-4000-qubit-quantum-computer-by-2025-heres-what-it-means/
D-Wave’s next big quantum annealing computer – Advantage2 – is on schedule for launch in the 2023/24 timeframe. Advantage2 will feature 7000-plus qubits!!!!! https://www.hpcwire.com/2023/01/18/qubits23-d-wave-asserts-the-quantum-wait-is-over/
In 2030 IBM will have 1,000,000 qubit quantum computer. https://fortune.com/2020/09/15/ibm-quantum-computer-1-million-qubits-by-2030/
New spin control method brings billion-qubit quantum chips closer
Portable quantum computers are available for educational purposes
Even so experts disagree on ability of 372 qubit quantum computers to break encryption, they all agree that more powerful quantum computers can do it. This means that all technologies based on the current cryptographic algorithms will be useless, including passwords in encrypted files, crypto currencies, etc.
Is your business ready for the era of quantum computers?
Dynamical passwords are not stored in any place, they do not depend on encryption algorithms, therefore they are ready for the era of quantum computers. In addition to better security they offer simplification of passwords management and changes of multiple passwords for multiple accounts.
IBMs 1,121 qubits quantum computer targeted for 2023 release will be able to break 99% of today's blockchain platforms and cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana, Cardano, Ripple, Polkadot, etc. Source https://learn.qanplatform.com/technology/technology-features/quantum-resistant-security"
Fujitsu and Riken research institute, Japanese tech multinationals are expected to jointly launch a potential Bitcoin-beating quantum computer to companies in 2023. Source https://beincrypto.com/btc-could-be-under-threat-as-quantum-computers-set-to-launch-in-2023/
"There is a very real possibility that quantum supremacy and the quantum crypto break have already happened within a private entity and the rest of the public world simply does not know about it. It is generally believed that if a major country’s government was able to obtain quantum supremacy and, in particular, perform the quantum crypto break first, they would have every incentive to keep the accomplishments silent."
Source: Cryptography Apocalypse: Preparing for the Day When Quantum Computing Breaks Today's Crypto, Roger A. Grimes, 2019
"Chinese researchers, who hold over half of the world's quantum technology patents and have allocated $15 billion towards quantum technology to be spent before 2025, claim their technology can break the RSA algorithm that is used to encrypt the majority of the web’s traffic."
Source: BTQ Prepares Today to Defend Against Tomorrow’s Quantum-Computing Threat
Quantum Encryption Replacement Algorithm Hacked by AI
‘Post-Quantum’ Cryptography Scheme Is Cracked on a Laptop
If post-quantum cryptography can be cracked how secure are your passwords?